Endnotes for "Christianity Requires Gender Equality and Respect for Life"


1. John 8:3-11.

2. Romans 16.

3. 1 Timothy 5:1b-2.

4. Galatians 3:28.

5. Romans 12:18.

6. As in social codes appearing in Colossians 3:18-4:6. See E.E. Johnson, "Colossians," in Women's Bible Commentary, C.A. Newsom and S.H. Ringe, eds., (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1998).

7. D.J. Good, "Early Extracanonical Writings," Women's Bible Commentary.

8. J.L. Hurlbut, The Story of the Christian Church, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1982).

9. 1 Timothy 5:8.

10. Mark 10: 2-12.

11. Ephesians 5:21-30.

12. Many feel that 1 Timothy 2:11-15 gives men authority over women. However, this scripture passage pertains to church life only, not family life, and as such is the topic for another discussion.

13. Ephesians 5:33.

14. Colossians 3:19.

15. 1 Peter 3:7.

16. 1 Peter 3:19.

17. S. Dowd, "1 Peter," Women's Bible Commentary.

18. 1 Corinthians 7:15.

19. 1 Peter 3:1-2.

20. 1 Corinthians 7:3-5.

21. Proverbs 5:15-19.

22. R.J. Weems, "Song of Songs," Women's Bible Commentary.

23. This unfortunate tradition began even with the early Church Fathers. St. Augustine considered all sex sin, even within marriage! See L. A. Kalland, "Views and Position of the Christian Church--An Historical View," in Christian Medical Society, Birth Control and the Christian (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1969), 430.

24. Kalland, 427-32.

25. R. Alcorn, Pro Life Answers to Pro Choice Arguments (Portland, OR: Multinomah Books, 1992), 239.

26. Exodus 20:13.

27. "TV actress presses termination lawsuit," Associated Press in Las Vegas Review-Journal, Nov.13, 1997.

28. "Fired 'Melrose Place' Actress Says She Considered Abortion," Associated Press, Nov.14, 1997.

29. T. Schermerhorn, R. Gregg, and D. Gregorian, "Melrosy Outlook," New York Post, Dec. 23, 1997.

30. A. Covarrubias, "Actress wins $5 million," Associated Press, Dec. 23, 1997.

31. The risk of breast cancer almost doubles after aborting a first pregnancy and rises even further with two or more abortions. See H.L. Howe et al., "Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40," International Journal of Epidemiology 18(2):300-304 (1989); L.I. Remennick, "Induced Abortion as A Cancer Risk Factor: A Review of
Epidemiological Evidence," Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 259-64 (1990); M.C. Pike, "Oral Contraceptive Use and Early Abortion as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Young Women," British Journal of Cancer, 43:72 (1981).

32. Although abortion-rights advocates have been slow to acknowledge the emotional trauma caused by abortion, this problem is discussed by S. Buttenweiser and R. Levine, "Breaking Silences: A Post-Abortion Support Model," in From Abortion to Reproductive Rights, Marlene Fried, ed. (Boston: South End Press, 1990), 121-128. Of course, the authors blame post-abortion trauma on "the anti-abortion movement" heaping women with guilt.

33. Personal correspondence via e-mail, name withheld, Sept. 30, 1998.

34. Personal correspondence via e-mail from "Rebecca," June 12, 1998.

35. The Revolution, 4(1):4 July 8, 1869. Abortion was also referred to as "child murder."

36. Luke 1:38.

37. James 2:26.

38. Worldwide Directory of Life-Affirming Pregnancy Services (Heartbeat International, 1998). Birthright International, Heartbeat International, and CareNet alone have 450-500 affiliates each; many others are church-related or independent. All are prolife.

39. Interestingly, women who have had abortions are six times more likely to become prolife activists as opposed to prochoice activists. See R. Alcorn 1992, 193.

40. Posted on the Internet at http://www.w-cpc.org/post-abortion/mailbox.html, by Anonymous, May 23, 1998.

41. Genesis 1:28.

42. Matthew 28:19.

43. Kalland, 453.

44. Humanae Vitae (papal encyclical), July 29, 1968.

45. Proverbs 2:6; Hosea 4:6.

46. 1 Corinthians 6:20.

47. R.A. Hatcher et al, Contraceptive Technology, 17th ed., (New York: Ardent Media, 1998), 406, 468-9, Table 20-1. J.A. Spinnato, "Mechanism of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices and its relation to informed consent," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 176(3): 503-6 (1997).

48. One pastor has documented his struggle to determine the exact mechanism of the pill, and the ridiculous replies given by pharmaceutical representatives. See Randy Alcorn, "What Do the Pill Manufacturers Say?" in Does the Birth Control Pill Cause Abortions?, 2nd ed. (Gresham, OR: Eternal Perspective Ministries, 1998). This material can also be viewed online at http://www.epm.org/bcpill1.htm.

49. Personal correspondence via e-mail from Jennifer Williams, July 11, 1998.

50. Posted by Camille to Birth Control Question & Answer Page at http://www.epigee.org/guide/messages, March 2, 1998.

51. Personal correspondence via e-mail, name withheld, September 8, 1998. Accutane (Isotretinoin) is a powerful drug used in the treatment of acne. It has significant side effects and can cause serious birth defects in babies born to women who are taking the drug or have taken the drug in the past month.

52. Posted by Chrissy M. to Birth Control Question & Answer Page, Sept. 2, 1998.

53. There are many other risks as well. See Hatcher, 413-421.

54. See Hatcher, 230, 412.

55. Hatcher, 216.

56. Almost half (47%) of more than 900 Pill users in one study missed one or more pills per month. See M.J. Rosenberg, M.S. Waugh, and M.S. Burnhill, "Compliance, Counseling and Satisfaction with Oral Contraceptives: A Prospective Evaluation," Family Planning Perspectives 30(2): 89-92, 104 (1998).

57. Personal Fertility Indicator, by Unipath Ltd.

58. Sounds rather sinister to me. See Hatcher, 620.

59. Posted by Sean Kelley to Birth Control Question & Answer Page, Jan.19, 1998.

60. Boston Women's Health Book Collective, The New Our Bodies Ourselves, 3d ed. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985).

61. "Teen Sex and Pregnancy," Facts in Brief (New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1998).

62. Personal correspondence via email, Sept.17, 1998.

63. See P. Donovan, "School-Based Sexuality Education: The Issues and Challenges," Family Planning Perspectives 30(4): 188-93 (Jul/Aug 1998).

64. Hatcher, 179, 707.

65. From 25-year old Massachusetts resident, Internet Sex Education Survey, http://www.epigee.org/guide, Sept. 5, 1998.

66. Personal correspondence via email, Sept. 17, 1998.

67. P. Donovan.

68. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, P.L. 104-193, sec. 912.

69. R. Bynum, "More Than Half of High-School Students Abstaining from Sex, CDC Says," Associated Press, Sept. 18, 1998.

70. "Contraceptive Use," Facts in Brief (New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1998).

71. M. D. Hayward and J. Yogi, "Contraceptive Failure Rates in the US: Estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth," Family Planning Perspectives 18(5): 204 (Sept/Oct 1986).

72. Deuteronomy 30:19.